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N5: Grammar points

Quick summary of N5 grammar

Statement sentences

A statement sentence can be created using XはYだ(です)- "X is Y", where です is a more polite version or だ (however there are differences).
Examples:
りんごは甘いです - An apple is sweet

Particles before だ

General rules for particles retention before だ:
  • が、を、へ、に (time, location) - must drop
  • に (indirect object, agent, direct contact) and で (location, means) - may drop
  • で (reason)、と、から、まで - usually do not drop

Questions with particle か

A statement sentence can be turned into a question sentence by adding か at the end?
XはYですか - "Is X Y"?
Examples:
りんごは甘い(です)か - Is apple sweet?

Possessive particle: の

XのY - where X, which comes before の, modifies the Y.
Examples:
私の犬 - my dog
母の車 - my mom's car
Y can be omitted if is clear from the context
A: この本は誰のものですか
B: それは私のです
Last modified 3mo ago